History of Marketing
History of Marketing – The history of marketing evolved over many years.
The role of marketing began many thousands of years ago with simple bartering, progressed to the exchange of goods and services for hard currency beginning in Mesopotamia around 5000 B.C., then further developed into a sophisticated system for creating desires and demands that favored the sellers (businesses) over the buyers (consumers).
Over the centuries, marketing has changed vastly in accordance with advances in technology. Although many of the underlying concepts remain, the practice of marketing has evolved dramatically. The advent of radio and television brought advertisements into people’s homes, while computers have allowed marketers to gather vast amounts of information about potential consumers. Their constant interaction with consumers has created a number of problems, such as the overcrowding and overcommercialization of the Internet.
The History Of Marketing: Bartering
Even in prehistoric times, humans bartered with each other to obtain goods and services they could not produce themselves. For example, people living in what is now France might have traded animal skins for some of the stone tools made by people living in what is now England. This type of trading continued even after the advent of currency. Marketplaces found in nearly every city throughout history served as venues where vendors, buyers, and traders could exchange goods and services for money or other items of value.
The History Of Marketing: The Development Of Currency
The first known currency was created around 2000 B.C. by King Alyattes of Lydia (in present-day Turkey). The first Lydian coins were made from a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver called electrum, and featured an image of a roaring lion stamped on one side; the name “lydion” may have derived from the distinctive roaring of the lion depicted on Lydian coins.
The History Of Marketing: Isolationism vs. Imperialism
For most of recorded history, empires rose and fell with only the barest trickle of commerce between them. The development of transportation technologies helped to connect these isolated markets after centuries of relative inactivity, sparking an explosion of merchants and commerce.
The first evidence for the large-scale use of wheeled vehicles dates from about 3500 B.C., in Mesopotamia, and it is around this time that we see the first markets appear as well. These markets formed the basis for more permanent settlements, which would grow into cities. By 1500 B.C., cars, chariots and wagons had been perfected enough to allow for the rise of a class of specialist merchants who traveled across great distances, spreading their wares across new markets.
The History Of Marketing: Advances In Transportation
As new civilizations emerged, they often began by building canals or other types of waterways to ease transport of goods throughout their lands. Anthropologists have long believed that the first true highways were built in Egypt around 2700 B.C., when a series of straight roads was built to ease trade and taxation. The Romans developed an extensive system of roadways as well, as did the Chinese as they began to connect different markets across Asia. In the New World, the Aztecs built a series of stone roads that connected markets in different cities.
The History Of Marketing: Advances In Communication
By about 5000 B.C., the Sumerians had developed a system of clay tokens to mark amounts of goods and property exchanged between merchants. Eventually, these tokens evolved into written receipts, and later into clay tablets inscribed with the buyer, seller and amount of goods exchanged. These clay tablets were then wrapped in a piece of clay to form a bulla, which served as receipts for the exchange of goods or property.
The History Of Marketing: Advances In Agriculture
Farming has existed since ancient times, but it wasn’t until about 5,000 years ago that people began to domesticate animals and plants so they could be bred on farms. This step triggered the transition from hunting and gathering to farming as a way of life. Farming allowed people to establish permanent settlements, trade with their neighbors, and accumulate wealth in the form of excess crops not needed for immediate consumption.
The History Of Marketing: The Development Of Currency
While trading of goods and services had been an established part of human culture for many thousands of years, the exchange of currencies is a relatively recent development. A wide variety of different types of currency have been used over the course of history, from gold to seashells to paper money. While it is impossible to pinpoint exactly when currency was first developed, the first coins are believed to have emerged in Lydia (modern-day Turkey) around 600 B.C., and were made from a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver called electrum.
Lydia’s location at an important crossroads between Europe and Asia Minor helped it develop into a wealthy and powerful kingdom, which in turn allowed it to become the first place where coinage was used.
The History Of Marketing: The First Marketers
In Lydia, a kingdom located at a strategic crossroads between Asia Minor and Europe, traders had begun using coins made from electrum to buy their goods from one another. This development led to the first markets, where traders would buy and sell a variety of different goods across long distances.
Harold Innis And The Empires Of Grain
In Canada, the first grain trader was E. P. Taylor who founded what is now known as “The Empire Organization of Companies”, with roots in grain trade that go back to 1847. In the 1920s, he built a vertically integrated company from the producer through to flour milling and ultimately bread baking. Despite being criticized for creating a monopoly, Taylor expanded his empire across Canada.
The History Of Marketing: Advances In Transportation – The Iron Horse
In 1830s England began using the steam engine in textile mills. In 1852, a British company built the world’s first steam locomotive that could be used to carry cargo. In 1869, the United States followed suit and laid down its own railroads, which connected one side of the country to the other for the first time.
The History Of Marketing: Advances In Transportation – The Automobile Industry
In 1885, German inventor Karl Benz built the first gasoline powered car. Starting in 1908, Ford quickly overtook Ford as a model of choice for drivers due to its affordability and reliability. Henry Ford revolutionized the auto industry through standardization, assembly line manufacturing and mass production. In 1918, General Motors overtook Ford as the largest automobile manufacturer.
The History Of Marketing: Advances In Transportation – The Airline Industry
In 1908, a young French aviator, Louis Bleriot crossed the English Channel from France to England in his Bleriot XI. His successful crossing showed that aviation could be used for peaceful purposes and was an important step forward in proving that aircraft could be used for longer-distance flights. In 1919, a US army pilot, Lieutenant Calbraith Perry Rodgers completed the first transcontinental flight from New York to California in under 30 days.
In 1927 – American aviators Charles Lindbergh and flying a Ryan monoplane Spirit of St. Louis became the first people to successfully fly across the Atlantic Ocean.
The History Of Marketing: A New Medium – The Invention of Radio
On December 23, 1901, at the height of the wireless telegraphy craze, Guglielmo Marconi achieved one of his greatest accomplishments when he successfully sent a signal across the Atlantic Ocean. This marked the beginning of long distance radio transmissions. In the beginning of the 1920s, Marconi’s company was awarded a contract to create a national radio broadcasting system.
In 1933 – The first regular television broadcasts began in Berlin on March 22 at 8:15 p.m.. All throughout Europe, people gathered around their radios and televisions for their first glimpse of history as Adolf Hitler delivered his opening speech from the Reichstag.
The History Of Marketing: A New Medium – The Invention of Television
In 1928, Philo T. Farnsworth sent and received his first picture using a cathode ray tube becoming one of America’s greatest inventors and laying the groundwork for future television broadcasts. In 1935, RCA demonstrated their model for a complete electronic television system in their Rockefeller Center store window, which was viewed by over 100,000 people.
In 1939 – The world’s first experimental television broadcasts began in London and New York City. While WWII stopped the advancements of this new technology for a few years, it continued to develop rapidly after the war ended.
The History Of Marketing: Advances In Consumer Electronics – The Radio
In 1895, Guglielmo Marconi invented the first wireless transmitter. Three years later he demonstrated that sound could be carried wirelessly by transmitting Morse code messages between moving trains. On December 24, 1901 – Guglielmo Marconi sent and received signals across the Atlantic Ocean for the first time.
In 1922, RCA created the first commercially available radio for consumers.
The History Of Marketing: Advances In Consumer Electronics – The Record Player
In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph, which could play sound recordings etched into tin foil. Over the next couple decades he improved his model until he was able to produce a device that could record and reproduce sound using cylinders instead of tin foil. In 1910, The Victor Talking Machine Company was founded and produced the first phonograph with a removable vinyl record – ushering in the era of modern music distribution.
In 1948 – Columbia Records becomes the first recording studio to offer long-playing vinyl records for consumers which allowed them to fit up to twenty minutes of audio on each side instead of just about three minutes as before.
The History Of Marketing: Advances In Consumer Electronics – Television Technology
In 1926, John Baird demonstrated a prototype television system. Two years later he developed a complete all-electronic TV system, but it was too expensive for consumer use at this time. Later other companies surpassed his model, leading to the creation of modern television technology.
In 1939, RCA manufactured their first TV for consumers in New York City, which was viewed by over one million people during its initial demonstrations at the World Fair.
The History Of Marketing: Advances In Consumer Electronics – The Internet
In 1969, the US Defense Department began experimenting with sending messages between computers over ARPANET, a test network that provided four computers across multiple university sites. They were later joined by three West Coast universities in 1971 and then many more along the way. Eventually, Tim Berners-Lee developed HTML code to create what would become one of the world’s greatest inventions.
In 1991 – With 100 participating hosts on ARPANET, Tim Berners-Lee builds the first web browser, which would later become Mosaic.
In 1993 – Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina developed Mosaic Netscape, which made it easier for more people to access the internet. This led to explosive growth of the internet.
After which slowly Digital Marketing was born.
In 1999 – Google is founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin.
In 2001 – Apple releases the first ever iPod, a portable MP3 player which helped give rise to companies like Spotify and Pandora.
In 2004 – Facebook was launched from Mark Zuckerberg’s dorm room at Harvard University.
In 2011– Half of the world’s population is now connected to the internet in one way or another. [Source: Internet World Stats ]
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